The assay is based on the quantitative reduction of Fe(III) to Fe(II) by uric acid . Fe(II) reacts with 2,4,6 – tripyridyl-s-triazine to form a colored complex which is measured colorimetrically. The color intensity is directly proportionate to the uric acid concentration.
The assay is not specific for uric acid, but will also detect other reducing substances (antioxidants), such as ascorbic acid. In human serum and urine samples uric acid is the predominant antioxidant. Most mammals, except for great apes, produce the enzyme urate oxidase, and serum uric acid levels are much lower (about 1/5th of human serum levels). In those serum samples the assay may overestimate the actual uric acid concentration.
Yes. You can extract uric acid with 7 mM glycine buffer, pH 9.5 containing 5% glycerol. Simply mix preweighed manure and known amount of buffer together, homogenize in a tissue homogenizer or shake to dissolve all solid materials. Filtrate or centrifuge to obtain clear extract.
Gonzalez-Candia, A., et al. (2019). Antenatal melatonin modulates an enhanced antioxidant/pro-oxidant ratio in pulmonary hypertensive newborn sheep. Redox Biology 22: 101128. Assay: Uric Acid in lamb lung tissue.
Andres-Hernando, A., et al. (2021). Vasopressin mediates fructose-induced metabolic syndrome by activating the V1b receptor. JCI Insight 6(1). Assay: Uric Acid in mouse serum.
Lodhi, S., et al. (2020). Protective effects of luteolin on injury induced inflammation through reduction of tissue uric acid and pro-inflammatory cytokines in rats. Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine 10(1): 60-69. Assay: Uric Acid in rat liver tissue.
Zalewska, A., et al. (2020). NAC supplementation of hyperglycemic rats prevents the development of insulin resistance and improves antioxidant status but only alleviates general and salivary gland oxidative stress. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity 2020. Assay: Uric Acid in rat plasma and saliva.
Andres-Hernando, A., et al. (2020). Sugar causes obesity and metabolic syndrome in mice independently of sweet taste. American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism 319(2): E276-E290. Assay: Uric Acid in mouse tissue.
Maciejczyk, M., et al. (2019). Salivary antioxidant barrier, redox status, and oxidative damage to proteins and lipids in healthy children, adults, and the elderly. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity 2019. Assay: Uric Acid in human plasma.
van Dam, E., et al. (2020). Sugar-induced obesity and insulin resistance are uncoupled from shortened survival in Drosophila. Cell Metabolism 31(4): 710-725. Assay: Uric Acid in fly hemolymph.
Afify, H., et al. (2020). The modulatory effects of cinnamaldehyde on uric acid level and IL-6/JAK1/STAT3 signaling as a promising therapeutic strategy against benign prostatic hyperplasia. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 402: 115122. Assay: Uric Acid in rat.
Abo-Youssef, A. M., et al. (2020). Febuxostat attenuates testosterone-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia in rats via inhibiting JAK/STAT axis. Life Sciences 260: 118414. Assay: Uric Acid in rat serum.
Chen, M., et al. (2020). Bergenin as a novel urate-lowering therapeutic strategy for hyperuricemia. Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology 8: 703. Assay: Uric Acid in mouse intestine.
Choromanska, B., et al. (2020). A longitudinal study of the antioxidant barrier and oxidative stress in morbidly obese patients after bariatric surgery. Does the metabolic syndrome affect the redox homeostasis of obese people? Journal of Clinical Medicine 9(4). Assay: Uric Acid in human plasma.
Morawska, K., et al. (2020). Enhanced salivary and general oxidative stress in Hashimoto ‘s Thyroiditis women in Euthyreosis. Journal of Clinical Medicine 9(7). Assay: Uric Acid in human plasma.
Fujihara, Y., et al. (2021). Influence of damage-associated molecular patterns from chondrocytes in tissue-engineered cartilage. Tissue Engineering. Part A 27(1-2): 1-9. Assay: Uric Acid in mouse chondrocytes.
Heropolitanska-Pliszka, E., et al. (2020). Systemic redox imbalance in patients with chronic granulomatous disease. Journal of Clinical Medicine 9(5). Assay: Uric Acid in human plasma.
Maciejczyk, M., et al. (2020). A case-control study of salivary redox homeostasis in hypertensive children. Can salivary uric acid be a marker of hypertension? Journal of Clinical Medicine 9(3). Assay: Uric Acid in human saliva and plasma.
Mosiichuk, N., et al. (2019). Uricemia in juvenile pigs model: effect of nephrectomy and potassium oxonate. Journal of Animal and Feed Sciences 28(3): 254-262. Assay: Uric Acid in pig plasma.
Gerreth, P., et al. (2020). Comprehensive evaluation of the oral health status, salivary gland function, and oxidative stress in the saliva of patients with subacute phase of stroke: A case-control study. Journal of Clinical Medicine 9(7). Assay: Uric Acid in human saliva.
Hoque, K. M., et al. (2020). The ABCG2 Q141K hyperuricemia and gout associated variant illuminates the physiology of human urate excretion. Nature Communications 11(1): 2767. Assay: Uric Acid in mouse serum and urine.
Zheng, W., et al. (2020). Extracellular matrix induced by steroids and aging through a G-protein-coupled receptor in a Drosophila model of renal fibrosis. Disease Models & Mechanisms 13(6). Assay: Uric Acid in fly frass.
Zebrowska, E., et al. (2020). High-sugar diet disrupts hypothalamic but not cerebral cortex redox homeostasis. Nutrients 12(10). Assay: Uric Acid in rat serum and brain tissue.
Klimiuk, A., et al. (2020). Salivary oxidative stress increases with the progression of chronic heart failure. Journal of Clinical Medicine 9(3). Assay: Uric Acid in human plasma and saliva.
Wu, J., et al. (2020). Rhein modulates host purine metabolism in intestine through gut microbiota and ameliorates experimental colitis. Theranostics 10(23): 10665-10679. Assay: Uric Acid in human cells.
Zinczuk, J., et al. (2019). Antioxidant barrier, redox status, and oxidative damage to biomolecules in patients with colorectal cancer. Can malondialdehyde and catalase be markers of colorectal cancer advancement? Biomolecules 9(10). Assay: Uric Acid in human plasma.
Li, H., et al. (2020). SLIPS-LAB-A bioinspired bioanalysis system for metabolic evaluation of urinary stone disease. Science Advances 6(21): eaba8535. Assay: Uric Acid in human urine.
Alvarez-Fuente, M., Moreno, L., Lopez-Ortego, P., Arruza, L., Avila-Alvarez, A., Muro, M. & Martinez-Ramas, A. (2019). Exploring clinical, echocardiographic and molecular biomarkers to predict bronchopulmonary dysplasia. PloS one, 14(3), e0213210. Assay: Uric acid in human blood.
Gonzalez-Candia, A., Veliz, M., Carrasco-Pozo, C., Castillo, R. L., Cardenas, J. C., Ebensperger, G. & Herrera, E. A. (2019). Antenatal melatonin modulates an enhanced antioxidant/pro-oxidant ratio in pulmonary hypertensive newborn sheep. Redox biology, 22, 101128. Assay: Uric acid in lamb lung tissue.
Zebrowska, E. et al (2019). High Protein Diet Induces Oxidative Stress in rat Cerebral Cortex and Hypothalamus. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 20(7), 1547. Assay: Uric acid in rats brain tissue.
Lee, J., Kiuchi, T., Kawamoto, M., Shimada, T., & Katsuma, S. (2018). Accumulation of uric acid in the epidermis forms the white integument of Samia ricini larvae. PloS one, 13(10), e0205758. Assay: Uric acid in silkworm integument tissue.
Maciejczyk, M., Matczuk, J., Zendzian-Piotrowska, M., Niklinska, W., Fejfer, K., Szarmach, I. & Zalewska, A. (2018). Eight-week consumption of high-sucrose diet has a pro-oxidant effect and alters the function of the salivary glands of rats. Nutrients, 10(10), 1530. Assay: Uric acid in rats saliva.
Maciejczyk, M., Szulimowska, J., Skutnik, A., Taranta-Janusz, K., Wasilewska, A., Wisniewska, N., & Zalewska, A. (2018). Salivary biomarkers of oxidative stress in children with chronic kidney disease. Journal of clinical medicine, 7(8), 209. Assay: Uric acid in human saliva.
Milagres, T., Garcia-Arroyo, F. E., Lanaspa, M. A., Garcia, G., Ishimoto, T., Andres-Hernando, A. & Sanchez-Lozada, L. G. (2018). Rehydration with fructose worsens dehydration-induced renal damage. BMC nephrology, 19(1), 180. Assay: Uric acid in mice kidney tissue.
Borys, J. et al (2017). The redox balance in erythrocytes, plasma, and periosteum of patients with titanium fixation of the jaw. Frontiers in physiology, 8, 386. Assay: Uric acid in human tissue.
Choromanska, M. et al (2017). Antioxidant defence, oxidative stress and oxidative damage in saliva, plasma and erythrocytes of dementia patients. Can salivary AGE be a marker of dementia? International journal of molecular sciences 18(10), 2205. Assay: Uric acid in human saliva.
Szczurek, P. et al (2017). Oral uricase eliminates blood uric acid in the hyperuricemic pig model. PloS one, 12(6), e0179195. Assay: Uric acid in pig blood, urine.
Song, Z., Roncal-Jimenez, C. A., Lanaspa-Garcia, M. A., Oppelt, S. A., Kuwabara, M., Jensen, T. & Johnson, G. (2016). Role of fructose and fructokinase in acute dehydration-induced vasopressin gene expression and secretion in mice. Journal of neurophysiology, 117(2), 646-654. Assay: Uric acid in mice urine.
Belarbi, M., et al. (2011). Oleaster Oil Positively Modulates Plasma Lipids in humans. J Agric Food Chem 59(16):8667-9. Assay: Uric acid in human plasma.
Karaouzene, N., et al. (2011). Effects of the association of aging and obesity on lipids, lipoproteins and oxidative stress biomarkers: A comparison of older with young men. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 21(10):792-9. Assay: Uric acid in human plasma.
Smith, C.L., et al. (2011). Naturally high plasma glucose levels in mourning doves (Zenaida macroura) do not lead to high levels of reactive oxygen species in the vasculature. Zoology (Jena) 114(3):171-6. Assay: Uric acid in mourning dove plasma.
Xu, X., et al. (2011). Major histocompatibility complex class I-related chain A/B (MICA/B) expression in tumor tissue and serum of pancreatic cancer: role of uric acid accumulation in gemcitabine-induced MICA/B expression. BMC Cancer 11(1):194. Assay: Uric acid in human PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cell lysate.
Kono, H., et al. (2010). Uric acid promotes an acute inflammatory response to sterile cell death in mice. J Clin Invest 120(6):1939-49. Assay: Uric acid in mouse peritoneal lavage fluid.
Moon, H.G., et al. (2010). Conversion of Th17-type into Th2-type inflammation by acetyl salicylic acid via the adenosine and uric acid pathway in the lung. Allergy 65(9):1093-103. Assay: Uric acid in mouse lung.
Yu, M.A., et al. (2010). Oxidative stress with an activation of the renin-angiotensin system in human vascular endothelial cells as a novel mechanism of uric acid-induced endothelial dysfunction. J Hypertens 28(6):1234-42. Assay: Uric acid in human endothelial cells.
Brosnahan, A.J., et al. (2009). Cytolysins augment superantigen penetration of stratified mucosa. J Immunol 182(4):2364-73. Assay: Uric acid in human vaginal epithelial cells.
DiSilvestro, R.A.DiSilvestro, D.J. (2009). Pomegranate extract mouth rinsing effects on saliva measures relevant to gingivitis risk. Phytother Res 23(8):1123-7. Assay: Uric acid in human saliva.
Whidden, M.A., et al. (2009). Xanthine oxidase contributes to mechanical ventilation-induced diaphragmatic oxidative stress and contractile dysfunction. J Appl Physiol 106(2):385-94. Assay: Uric acid in rat diaphragm.
Kaya, H., et al. (2008). The protective effect of N-acetylcysteine against cyclosporine A-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. J Appl Toxicol 28(1):15-20. Assay: Uric acid in rat serum.
Viel, E.C., et al. (2008). Xanthine oxidase and mitochondria contribute to vascular superoxide anion generation in DOCA-salt hypertensive rats. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 295(1):H281-8. Assay: Uric acid in rat plasma.
Kamel, A.H. (2007). Conventional and planar chip sensors for potentiometric assay of uric acid in biological fluids using flow injection analysis. J Pharm Biomed Anal 45(2):341-8. Assay: Uric acid in biological fluid.
Thangaraju, M., et al. (2006). c/ebpdelta Null mouse as a model for the double knock-out of slc5a8 and slc5a12 in kidney. J Biol Chem 281(37):26769-73. Assay: Uric acid in mouse serum, urine.
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